Up Close Text From Book Reading Opioids and Their Effects

Opioids | Opiates

Opioids / Opiates (heroin, fentanyl, carfentanyl, codeine, hydrocodone, oxycodone, morphine, methadone)

Natural or synthetic chemicals that interact with opioid receptors on nerve cells in the body and brain, and reduce the intensity of pain signals and feelings of pain. This class of drugs include the illegal drug heroin, synthetic opioids such as fentanyl, and pain medications available legally by prescription, such as oxycodone, hydrocodone, codeine, morphine, and many others. Opioid pain medications are generally safe when taken for a short time and as prescribed by a doctor, but because they produce euphoria in addition to pain relief, they can be misused. https://www.cdc.gov

Heroin is processed from morphine, a naturally occurring substance extracted from the seed pod of certain varieties of poppy plants grown in Mexico, South America, Southwest Asia (Afghanistan and Pakistan), and Southeast Asia (Thailand, Laos, and Myanmar (Burma)) Heroin comes in several forms, primarily white powder from Mexico and South America; and “black tar” and brown powder from Mexico. Because it enters the brain so rapidly, heroin is particularly addictive, both psychologically and physically. Heroin users report feeling a surge of euphoria or “rush,” followed by a twilight state of sleep and wakefulness.
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Fentanyl is a synthetic opiate pain reliever. It’s typically prescribed to patients for severe pain or injury, or after a patient has undergone surgery. It works quickly to eliminate any pain in the body. However, it can also be very addictive. Fentanyl is much more potent than heroin and 100x more potent than morphine. When prescribed by a physician, fentanyl is often administered via injection, transdermal patch, or in lozenges. Non-pharmaceutical fentanyl is sold in the following forms: as a powder; spiked on blotter paper; mixed with or substituted for heroin; or as tablets that mimic other, less potent opioids.
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Carfentanil: is a powerful derivative of fentanyl, a synthetic narcotic analgesic produced from morphine. While fentanyl is about 100 times more powerful than morphine, carfentanil is 100 times more potent than fentanyl, meaning it is 10,000 times more potent than morphine. This drug is not approved for use in humans in any capacity, and it is typically found in veterinary medicine to sedate large animals, primarily elephants.
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Codeine is a mild form of an opiate used to treat pain, as a cough medicine, and for diarrhea. It is typically used to treat mild to moderate degrees of pain. Street names for codeine include cough syrup, schoolboy, coties and t-three’s. “Purple drank” or “sizzurp” is a beverage where codeine is mixed with a soft drink such as sprite or mountain dew. The purplish hue comes from the dyes in the cough syrup.
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Hydrocodone is a mild form of an opiate and is semi-synthetic, synthesized from codeine, one of the opioid alkaloids found in the opium poppy. The most popular form of hydrocodone is Vicodin. Hydrocodone is a narcotic analgesic used orally for relief of moderate to severe pain, but also commonly taken in liquid form as an antitussive/cough suppressant. It is widely recognized as a white pill with the imprint M365, M366, or M367 on it. It comes in other shapes and colors as well as other name brands such as: Lortab, Maxidone, Norco, Zolvit, Lorcet, Xodol. (www.drugs.com) There are over 100 or more different varieties of hydrocodone in all different doses, colors, imprints, shapes and brands. If you are having trouble identifying a pill that you believe might be in the hydrocodone family, this website can assist you:
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Oxycodone is a mild form of an opiate, made by modifying thebaine, an organic chemical found in opium. Designated as an opioid, or semi-synthetic opiate, oxycodone shares a general classification with heroin, morphine and codeine. Oxycodone is classified as a Schedule II drug under the Controlled Substances Act. This means that although it has a definite medical purpose, there is a high potential for abuse. It comes in different brand names such as: oxycontin, Percocet, Roxicodone. Street names are as follows: hillbilly heroin, oxy, perc, ox, roxy, kicker
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Morphine Oral/Injectable: Morphine is the classic opiate painkiller, the standard by which other opiates are measured. While other opiates are more often the drug of choice of opiate addicts, morphine in pill or liquid form is still sought to satisfy cravings. Morphine can be taken as a liquid by mouth, as quick-acting tablets, or as slow-release tablets and capsules. It is also available as an injection. Morphine is commonly given by injection in hospitals following surgical operations. Oral preparations of morphine come with various different brand names, and not all brands are absorbed by your body in the same way. Once you have started taking one brand, you should continue to take the same brand unless your doctor tells you to switch to another. Even when used as directed, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) publishes warnings that morphine can be habit-forming and cause physical dependence. Street names for morphine are: Dreamer, Emsel, First Line, God’s Drug, Mister Blue, Morf and Uncle.
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Methadone has been used for decades to treat people who are addicted to heroin and narcotic pain medicines. When taken as prescribed, it is safe and effective. Methadone works by changing how the brain and nervous system respond to pain. It lessens the painful symptoms of opiate withdrawal and blocks the euphoric effects of opiate drugs such as heroin, morphine, and codeine, as well as semi-synthetic opioids like oxycodone and hydrocodone.
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